高考定语从句的六大热点

作者:佚名  时间:2016/1/18 11:55:05  来源:会员转发  人气:
  热点一:考查关系代词which
  例1 Maria has written two novels,both of ______ have been made into television series.
  A. them B. that C. which D. what
  解析:先行词为novels,指物,且空格前有both of,即代词加介词,其后应该用which引导定语从句,选C。
  例2 She showed the visitors around the museum,the construction ______ has taken more than three years.
  A. for which B. with which
  C. of which D. to which
  解析:先行词为the museum,空格前有the construction,表示的是“这个博物馆的建造”,为所属关系,用of which,相当于whose construction,选 C。
  考点归纳:
  1. which引导限制性定语从句,可代替指物的先行词,充当从句的主语或宾语,常可用that代替。
  2. which引导非限制性定语从句时,可以指代某一事物,也可以指代前面的整个句子(表示“这,这一点”),不能用that代替。
  3. which可用于“介词+which”“代词或数词+of+which”“名词+of+which”等结构中,that不可以。
  热点二:考查关系副词where
  例3 He got into a situation ______ it is hard to decide what is right and wrong.
  A. when B. which C. whose D. where
  解析:定语从句中不缺少主干成分,要使用关系副词。先行词a situation指地点,选where,答案为D。
  例4 Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment ______ they live.
  A. what B. which C. when D. where
  解析:先行词为the environment,定语从句中live为不及物动词,句意完整,不缺少主干成分,应填关系副词。先行词environment指地点,用where,相当于in which。
  考点归纳:
  1.先行词表示地点,且将其放在从句中充当地点状语时,用where引导定语从句,此时where可以用“in / on / at / under+which”代替。
  2.先行词表示地点,但在从句中充当主语或宾语,用which或that引导定语从句。
  3.英语中一些特殊的先行词(如case,point,situation,activity,business,envionment,position,stage等)表示模糊的地点,后面常用where引导定语从句。
  热点三:考查关系代词whose
  例5 Mr. King,______ legs were badly hurt,was quickly taken to hospital.
  A. that B. which C. whose D. what
  解析:先行词为Mr. King,空格后名词为legs,表示“金先生的腿”,为所属关系,因此用whose来引导定语从句。
  例6 I wish to thank Professor Smith,without ______ help I would never have got this far.
  A. who B. whose C. whom D. which
  解析:先行词为Professor Smith,空格后有名词help,表示“史密斯先生的帮助”,作定语,用whose,选B。本题由于空格前有介词without,易误选C。
  考点归纳:
  如果空格后为名词,且和先行词构成所属关系,不论先行词是物还是人,都用whose。在这种情况下,也可用“the +名词+of which”(指物)或“the +名词+of whom”(指人)代替“whose+名词”。
  热点四:考查“代词 / 数词+ of +关系代词”结构中关系代词的选择
  例7 Julie was good at German,French and Russian,all of ______ she spoke fluently.
  A. who B. whom C. which D. that
  解析:前后两句中间用逗号隔开,是主从复合句,空格处需要一个词代替前文中先行词(German,French and Russian)的含义,因此判定它是非限制性定语从句。which指物,并且可放在介词后面,选C。
  例8 The children,______ had played the whole day long,were worn out.
  A. all of what B. all of which
  C. all of them D. all of whom
  解析:先行词为children,指人,排除B;句子主干为the children were worn out,两个逗号之间应为定语从句,排除A和C,选D。
  考点归纳:
  此类定语从句常表示属于先行词的全部或一部分,重点是找出先行词指人还是指物,指人时介词后加whom,指物时介词后加which。
  热点五:考查 “介词+ 关系代词”结构中介词的选择
  例9 Care of the soul is a gradual process ______ even the small details of life should be considered.
  A. what B. in what C. which D. in which
  解析:主句结构完整,空格后为定语从句,排除A和B。先行词为process,代入到从句中,表示“在这个过程中”即in the process,充当地点状语,选D,相当于where。
  例10 In our class there are 46 students,______ half wear glasses.
  A. in whom B. in them
  C. of whom D. of them
  解析:由逗号将两个句子分开,可判断为定语从句,排除B和D。先行词为46 students,要表示“在46个学生中”,为所属关系,用of,选C。
  考点归纳:
  在“介词+ 关系代词”引导的定语从句中,关系代词指人时用whom,指物时用which,关键在于介词的选择。
  热点六:考查分隔式定语从句
  例11 The days are gone ______ physical strength was all you needed to make a living.
  A. when B. that C. where D. which
  解析:为了保持句子平衡,先行词days和定语从句被隔开,空格后是定语从句,先行词days在从句中作时间状语,可理解为“在那个时代”,所以选择when。
  例12 After the flooding,people were suffering in that area,______ urgently needed clean water,medicine and shelter to survive.
  A. which B. who C. where D. what
  解析:先行词为people,与定语从句之间被谓语部分were suffering in that area隔开,先行词表示人且充当从句的主语,选B。
  考点归纳:
  首先要认识分隔式定语从句,即如果定语从句过长,为了使句子保持平衡,常将定语从句和其修饰的先行词分隔开来。此时,找到定语从句的先行词是解题的关键。先行词和定语从句有时被谓语动词隔开,有时在先行词后面有较长的修饰语,有时在定语从句中会使用插入语,此时可忽略修饰语或插入语,以使定语从句的分析变得容易。

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